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Summary of Historical Periods Covered in 10th Grade American History

Development of Industrial America

  • Robbers barons used immoral methods to gain money while captains of industry donated to charity and were leaders in their industry.
  • Carnegie- Steel, Rockefeller- Oil, J.P. Morgan- Banker
  • Ellis Island and Angel Island were immigration stations. Angel Island discriminated against Chinese people.
  • The “New South” was a mixture of agriculture and factories.
  • The Transcontinental Railroad took people West and brought them into conflict with Native Americans who lived there.

Progressive Era

  • The Progressive Era was addressing problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration (i.e. child labor, dangerous factory conditions).
  • The 19th amendment gave women the right to vote.
  • Teddy Roosevelt, a republican president, had a Square Deal– Control of Corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
  • Taft- Dollar diplomacy
  • Wilson- Moral Diplomacy

WW1

  • Consisted of Trench warfare.
  • Sides- Central Powers– Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire vs. Allied Powers– France, Great Britain, Russia, US
  • Started with assassination of Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by a Serbian- Bosnian nationalist.
  • We joined after the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Telegram.
  • Allies won, war ended with Treaty of Versailles which punished Germany for their role in the war.

Roaring Twenties

  • The 18th amendment banned the sale, production, and distribution of alcohol but NOT the consumption.
  • Bootleggers illegally sold alcohol. Gangsters like Al Capone sold alcohol and was involved in gambling.
  • African Americans produced art and music during the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Flappers wore shorter dresses and smoked.
  • The 21st amendment overturned prohibition.

Great Depression

  • The Great Depression was a period lasting from 1929 to 1941 where the economy struggled and unemployment soared.
  • The Great Depression had many causes, including the crash of the stock market, banks collapsing, and the dust bowl which destroyed crops.
  • FDR helped end the Great Depression with the New Deal, programs like work projects and financial reforms.

World War 2

  • Axis Powers– Japan (led by Tojo), Germany (led by Hitler), and Italy (led by Mussolini).
  • Allied Powers- Soviet Union (led by Stalin), Great Britain (led by Churchill), USA (led by FDR), and France.
  • The war started when Germany invaded Poland and the US joined when Pearl Harbor was bombed.
  • The European front included battles such as Stalingrad and D-Day.
  • The Asian-Pacific front included battles such as Midway and Iwo Jima.
  • Germany surrendered after we invaded France and reached Germany. Germany and Japan surrendered after we dropped two atomic bombs.
  • The Holocaust during WW2 was a genocide of Jewish people as well as other groups orchestrated by Hitler and Nazis.

 

 

Cold War

  • Cold War– Conflict between the US and our allies and the Soviet Union and their allies. Tension and fear rather than bombs and guns.
  • Communism (Soviet Union) vs democracy (US)
  • Germany was divided into four zones of occupation, one of those zones was controlled by the Soviet Union. Berlin, Germany was also divided and a wall was put up.
  • A big fear during the Cold War was the possibility of nuclear warfare (atomic and hydrogen bombs).
  • The Red Scare was a fear of communism in the US that led to innocent people’s lives being destroyed by the House of Un-American Activities Committee and Senator Joseph McCarthy.
  • Korean War- North Korea (communist) vs South Korea (democratic). They are still separated today.

Civil Rights

  • Martin Luther King jr. was a pastor and civil rights activist who gave his “I Have a Dream” speech at the March on Washington.
  • Brown vs Board of Education was a Supreme Court case that ended segregation in public schools.
  • The Civil Rights Act banned segregation in public accommodations and hiring discrimination.
  • Malcom X was a civil rights leader who believed that Blacks and Whites should remain separated but wanted equality for African Americans.

Vietnam War

  • After France lost control, Vietnam was divided into North and South Vietnam with plans for an election to unify the country (election did not occur).
  • After our ship was allegedly attacked by North Vietnam, we became more involved in Vietnam. The US was fighting the Vietcong (communist guerrilla fighters in South Vietnam) and communist North Vietnam. We did NOT want South Vietnam to fall to communism.
  • It was a brutal war with agent orange and napalm being used by the US and booby traps by the VietCong.
  • We eventually leave and peace accords were signed, but neither side honored it, Saigon was taken by North Vietnam, and North and South Vietnam were united under a communist flag.
  • We LOST the Vietnam War.

1974- 2000

  • President Ford– Pardoned Nixon for the Watergate scandal. The economy struggled.
  • President Carter– Economy still struggled. During his presidency the Iranian Hostage crisis occurred where our embassy in Iran was seized.
  • President Reagan– Cut taxes. A new right republican.
  • Cold War ends- The Cold War ended with the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the fall of communist regimes around the globe, and the taking down of the Berlin wall.
  • President Bush- Persian Gulf War occurred under Bush where Iraq invaded Kuwait for oil. The racist system Apartheid occurred in South Africa.
  • President Clinton- Passed gun control legislation and family medical leave. Impeached for affair with White House intern.

2001-Present

  • President Bush- Handled 9/11 well but not Hurricane Katrina.
    • We invaded Afghanistan to take down Taliban and kill Osama bin Laden, the leader of Al Qaeda which had orchestrated 9/11.
    • We invaded Iraq to find weapons of mass destruction and kill Saddam Hussein.
  • President Obama- Gay marriage was legalized and Obamacare healthcare passed. We killed Osama bin Laden. Economy struggled.
  • President Trump- Low unemployment numbers. Signed First Step Act. Impeached twice.